POISONOUS ITEMS TO DOGS
It is not chocolate itself that is poisonous to dogs, it is the theobromine, a naturally occurring compound found in chocolate, tea, coffee and cola. Theobromine causes different reactions in different dogs: dogs with health problems, especially epilepsy, are more affected by theobromine than healthy dogs. Theobromine can trigger epileptic seizures in dogs prone to, or at risk of epilepsy. The size of the dog will also be a major factor: the smaller the dog, the more affected it is by the same amount, than a larger dog. Therefore, toxicity is described on a mg/Kg basis.
Furthermore, theobromine can cause cardiac irregularity, especially if the dog becomes excited. Cardiac arythmia can precipitate a myocardial infarct, which can kill the dog! Theobromine also irritates the GI tract and in some dogs can cause internal bleeding, which in some cases, kills them a day or so later.
Theobromine is also present in differing amounts in different kinds of chocolate. Milk chocolate has 44-66 mg/oz, dark chocolate 450 mg/oz and baking/bitter chocolate, or cocoa powder, varies as much as 150-600 mg/oz. How much chocolate a dog can survive, depends on its weight and other known circumstances. Under 200 mg theobromine per kg body weight, no deaths have been observed.
Theobromine will stay in the bloodstream for between 14 and 20 hours. It goes back into the bloodstream through the stomach lining and takes a long time for the liver to filter out.
Within two hours of ingestion, try inducing vomiting, unless your dog is markedly stimulated, comatose, or has lost the 'gag' reflex. If your dog has eaten a considerable amount of chocolate, or displays any of the above symptoms, TAKE IT TO THE VET WITHOUT DELAY!
In the absence of major symptoms, administer activated charcoal. The unabsorbed theobromine will chemically bond to this and be eliminated in the faeces. At a pinch, burnt toast, as in thoroughly burnt, crumbling in the hand, will do. Here is some more info for the 'Poisonous Items To Dogs' article.
Walnuts are poisonous to dogs and should be avoided. In particular, there is a type of fungus common to walnuts, especially wet, deadfall nuts, that will cause severe episodes of seizuring. Many nuts are not good for dogs in general, their high phosphorous content is said to possibly lead to bladder stones.
Onions, especially raw onions, have been shown to trigger haemolytic anaemia in dogs. Ref: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine Vol. 2pg
By: Stephen J. Ettinger D.V.M. & Edward C. Fieldman D.V.M.
Also: Six Cases of Heinz Body Haemolytic Anaemia Induced By Onion and/or Garlic Ingestion.
By: C.M. Edwards & C.J. Belford, Aust.Vet. Prac. 26 (1) March 1996, 18-22
Potato poisonings among people and dogs have occurred. Solanum alkaloids can be found in green sprouts and green potato skins, which occurs when the tubers are exposed to sunlight during growth, or after harvest. The relatively rare occurrence of actual poisoning, is due to several factors: Solanine is poorly absorbed. It is mostly hydrolysed into less toxic solanidenel.
The metabolites are quickly eliminated.
Note that cooked, mashed potatoes are fine for dogs and are actually quite nutritious and digestible.
Turkey skin is currently thought to cause acute pancreatis in dogs.
In assessing the risk to your dog from these plants, you need to consider both the age of your dog and it's propensity to chew on plants. Many of the toxic plants mentioned below, rarely cause problems, because most dogs don't chew them, the exceptions being, of course, young puppies, who are inclined to explore the world with their mouths, teething dogs, who may chew on everything and older dogs, that are simply fond of chewing. Oleander, for example, is rather toxic, but most cases of poisoning involve 1) cattle & other grazing livestock, 2) puppies and 3) human babies and toddlers.
Dumb Cane is one plant that should always be kept out of reach, as it only takes one nibble to cause a potentially fatal situation!
After contact with the skin or mouth.
Irritants (toxic oxalates)
Especially causing the mouth to swell, tongue pain, sore lips; some swelling so quickly, a tracheotomy is needed to prevent asphyxiation.
Emerald Duke (Philodendron)
Red Princess Split Leaf (Philodendron)
Saddle Leaf (Philodendron)
May contain a wide variety of poisons. Most will cause vomiting, abdominal pain & cramps. Some cause tremors, heart, respiratory and kidney problems, which can be difficult for the owner to interpret.
Bird of Paradise
Crown of Thorns
POISONOUS OUTDOOR PLANTS
Causes Vomiting & Diarrhoea
May Cause Vomiting, Abdominal Pain & Diarrhoea
Horse Chestnut Buckeye
Rain Tree Monkey Pod
Bird of Paradise
Causes Varied Toxic Effect
POISONOUS HOUSEHOLD ITEMS
Nail Polish & Remover
Paint & Remover